重複 英語。 Duplicate publication

It interacts with the signal via TPR motifs. The nucleotide sequence written in bold characters signifies the repeated sequence. In addition to this there is no depreciation. Another fundamental contribution of OLG models is that they justify existence of money as a medium of exchange. The two-sector model provides a framework of analysis for the study of the sectoral adjustments to aggregate shocks and implications of international trade for the dynamics of comparative advantage. They do this because they expect to be able to use that money to purchase consumption when they are the old generation. In terms of sequence, a TPR possesses a mixture of small and large hydrophobic residues, nonetheless, no positions are fully invariant. It contains three 3-TPR repeats each with its own peptide-binding specificity. In contrast to the Uzawa two-sector neoclassical growth model, the two-sector OLG model may be characterized by multiple steady-state equilibria, and initial conditions may therefore affect the long-run position of an economy. In a print-only era before modern via the internet and and before , , and citation indexes existed, despite a few rudimentary , it was likely for readers who subscribed to journals in one city, region, or specialty, to have only sporadic contact with journals from other places or specialties. Direct terminal repeats are in the same direction and inverted terminal repeats are opposite to each other in direction. However, certain restrictions on the underlying technology of production and consumer tastes can ensure that the steady state level of saving corresponds to the of the and thus guarantee intertemporal efficiency. This OLG model with production was further augmented with the development of the two-sector OLG model by , and the introduction of OLG models with endogenous fertility. Re-publication serves the goal of bringing important information to new readerships, which makes it analogous to some instances of duplicate publication on that score. Since initial conditions in the OLG model may affect economic growth in long-run, the model was useful for the exploration of the. Not every equilibrium is inefficient; the efficiency of an equilibrium is strongly linked to the and the gives for when an OLG competitive equilibrium allocation is inefficient. The and genes belong to the class of middle repetitive DNA. The binding of the Rac GTPase is a key step into the assembly of the complex and the TPRs in the phox unit mediate the assembly of the multiprotein complex by acting a binding scaffold. These pair repeats usually together to produce a single, linear called a TPR domain. Each individual receives a fixed endowment of this good at birth. Thus redundant publication could serve a valid purpose analogous to the way that various newspapers in different cities and countries often report news items from elsewhere, ensuring that people in many places receive them despite that they do not read multiple periodicals from many other places. Output is produced from labor and physical capital. A formalization of the policy of disallowing duplicate publications was given by , the editor of , in 1969. Multiple submission is not plagiarism, but it is today often viewed as academic misbehavior : 93, 129 because it can skew and : 110 and can distort and by to a degree. Since the economy begins in period 1, in period 1 there is a group of people who are already old. Between adjacent TPR, residues have roles with both structural and functional implications. The PP5 structure contained 3 tandem TPR repeats which showed the sequential TPR repeats formed an alpha-helical structure. There are however certain residues that are usually conserved including Tryptophan 4, Leucine 7, Glycine 8, Tyrosine 11, Alanine 20, Phenylalanine 24, Alanine 27 and Proline 32. They are referred to as the initial old. Another attribute of OLG type models is that it is possible that '' can occur when is added to the model—a situation which could be improved upon by a social planner by forcing households to draw down their capital stocks. It was first formulated in 1947, in the context of a pure-exchange economy, by , and more rigorously by in 1958. The Review of Economic Studies. Direct repeats are a type of genetic sequence that consists of two or more repeats of a specific sequence. Proteins with such domains include the APC subunits , and , the subunit , hsp90-binding , , the PKR , the major receptor for peroxisomal matrix protein import , protein arginine methyltransferase 9 PRMT9 , and mitochondrial import proteins. Existence and optimality of competitive equilibria 1990 student ed. In between helices, residue conservation plays more of a structural role with helix breaking residues present. Trends in Biochemical Sciences. Introduction to Modern Economic Growth. The image was rendered using the KING Software starting from the PDB 1NA3. This article needs additional citations for. Although the nature of such interactions may vary, the first two helices of the TPR motif typically have a packing angle of ~24 degrees within a single motif. Both C-terminal sequences end with an EEVD motif and the nature of the interaction is both electrostatic and hydrophobic. However, as discoverability increased in the 20th century and the aforementioned concerns arose, critical views of redundant publication, beyond merely reproaching vanity, took shape. It consists of a 34 amino acid identified in a wide variety of. It was not always looked upon as harshly, as it began centuries ago and, besides the negative motive of vanity which has always been possible, it also had a legitimate motive in reaching readerships of various journals and books that were at real risk of not otherwise overlapping. Journals sometimes choose to republish seminal articles, whether from their own past volumes, from other journals, or both. One tool developed in 2006 by researchers in 's laboratory at was , an open-access database containing several thousand instances of duplicate publication. This type of dual publication is analogous to. Generally, a direct repeat occurs when a sequence is repeated with the same pattern downstream. Most of its contacts with the C-terminal tripeptide PTS1 are in the concave face of TPRs 1, 2 and 3. Republished articles are clearly labeled as such, allowing them to be recognized as such in. Because there are an infinite number of agents in the economy summing over future time , the total value of resources is infinite, so Pareto improvements can be made by transferring resources from each young generation to the current old generation. The other positions have a stronger preference for either small, large or aromatic amino acids rather than a specific residue. In other words, the direct repeats are sequences present in multiple copies in the. In contrast, to Ramsey—Cass—Koopmans neoclassical growth model in which individuals are infinitely-lived and the economy is characterized by a unique steady-state equilibrium, as was established by Oded Galor and Harl Ryder, the OLG economy may be characterized by multiple steady-state equilibria, and initial conditions may therefore affect the long-run evolution of the long-run level of income per capita. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. In the second period of life, they are referred to as the Old. In 1965, incorporated an aggregate neoclassical production into the model. In contrast, to the in which individuals are infinitely-lived, in the OLG model individuals live a finite length of time, long enough to overlap with at least one period of another agent's life. Repeats of more than three TPR motifs generate a right handed superhelix characterized by both a concave and a convex face, of which the concave face is usually involved in ligand binding. The OLG model is the natural framework for the study of: a the life-cycle behavior investment in , work and for , b the implications of the across the generations, such as , on the in the long-run, c the determinants of economic growth in the course of human history, and d the factors that triggered the. A system of expectations exists as an equilibrium in which each new young generation accepts money from the previous old generation in exchange for consumption. This image shows signature residues commonly found in TPR motifs. With the advancement of the internet, there are now several tools available to aid in the detection of and multiple publications within biomedical literature. He coined the term banning republications in the journal. It may or may not have intervening nucleotides. Among those 8, Alanine at positions 8, 20 and 27 tend to be more conserved. Most journals follow this policy today. It is found in tandem arrays of 3—16 motifs, which form scaffolds to mediate protein—protein interactions and often the assembly of multiprotein complexes. Each household is endowed with one unit of time which is inelastically supply on the labor market. This endowment is denoted as y. However, it is different from duplicate publication in the respect that there is no element of merely gaming the system of citation impact. However, there is at least one form of publishing the same article in multiple journals that is still widely accepted, which is that some medical societies that issue joint will those guidelines in both of the societies' official journals; for example, joint guidelines by the and the are usually published in both and the. The , for example, requires copies of any previous work with more than 10% overlap of a submission to be submitted before approving a work for publication. It does not refer to the unauthorized republication by someone else, which constitutes , , or both. Its TPR1 domain is known to recognize the C-terminal of Hsp70 while TPR2 binds to the C-terminal of Hsp90. There is no inversion and no reverse complement associated with a direct repeat. Find sources: — · · · · January 2016 Duplicate publication, multiple publication, or redundant publication refers to publishing the same intellectual material more than once, by the or. The Quarterly Journal of Economics. Books devoted to the use of the OLG model include ' Intertemporal Macroeconomics and and 's Theory of Economic Growth. Advanced Macroeconomics 3rd ed. Along the same lines, most empirical research on the subject has noted that oversaving does not seem to be a major problem in the real world. The structure solved by by Das and colleagues showed that the TPR sequence motif was composed of a pair of antiparallel alpha helices.。 。 。 。 。 。